Dutchman. Amiri Baraka. CHARACTERS. CLAY, twenty‐year‐old Negro. LULA, thirty‐year‐old white woman. RIDERS OF COACH, white and black. PDF | The black literature as one of the most dominant literary Baraka's Dutchman tries to portray, symbolically and allegorically, the bitter. Looking into Black Skulls: Amiri Baraka's Dutchman and the Psychology of Race GEORGE PIGGFORD Houston A. Baker, Jr. has rightly observed that "the.

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Dutchman represents the first salvo fired by Baraka in the undeclared race war between the Whites and the. Blacks in America - a war "in which all Americans. Dutchman and The slave, two plays. by: Baraka, Imamu Amiri, For print- disabled users. Borrow this book to access EPUB and PDF files. Roles in Amiri Baraka's Dutchman by Arnab Chatterjee. Abstract Amiri Baraka and his plays: The questions of racial conflict and a rage emerging.. PDF. 7.

In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He does not wish to Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa.

He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of opportunity closed roughly in his face Du Bois. It also brings to light his inefficiency to mould himself into this dual-identity, a paradox that shall haunt him till his death by Lula.

Lula is portrayed as the femme-fatale and critics have made comparisons between her character and Eve since Lula passes the apple to Clay, thus making her the archetypal, devouring female. She makes the first move with Clay, be it coming to sit with him or speaking to him, or touching him physically.

She does seem to posit physical strength — as Clay notices by the strength of her grip — and one wonders if this is a symbol of strength by virtue of her being superior in terms of her race.

It not only conforms to patriarchal stereotypes, but also problematizes the question of identity, since such stratifications promote conformations leading to further identity conflicts when one does not fit in.

If Clay tries to fit in, it becomes easy for Lula to condemn him as a savage. Another way in which this stratification can be viewed is the assignment of masculinity to the Blacks and of femininity to the Whites, coinciding with an actual black male and a white female.

In , Du Bois had asserted that the Black American could best further his cause by rejecting a servile imitation of Anglo-Saxon culture. Some Renaissance novelists had grappled with the problem of developing life-styles based on Afro-American values rather than succumbing completely in their artistic vision to the middle-class mores of dominant society. It must Accuse and Attack because it is a theatre of Victims. In the Western sense they could be heroes. While the play was performed in front of a dual audience, i.

Apart from the obvious conflict between black and white aesthetics, there also exists a more troubling conflict for the blacks, i.

He repeatedly retreats into the safety of words from an emphasis on action, defeating himself.

He concludes with a warning not to trust assimilated blacks, since they might go on a genocide rampage using their Western conditioning as a justification. One is tempted to ask if the assurance of citizenry leads to the erasure of history; that vexing promise of civil rights.

Baraka- Dutchman.pdf - AMIRI BARAKA b 1934 Amiri Baraka was...

That is, the citizens. And that you are free of your own history. And I am free of my history. To conclude, I would like to state that Dutchman serves as an important site of conflict, bringing forth questions of racial assimilations into stratifications created during a turbulent period, highlighting problems arising by a conformation to those stratifications. African American History.

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Bigsby, C. Vol 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p. Du Bois, W. Chicago: A. McClurg and Co. The complexity of themes When Baraka moved his play Dutchman to Harlem it was quickly labelled as a white-hating play.

The interpretation of a black racism against white people is just one, maybe even wrong aspect. The play is concerned with a variety of social issues MacNicholas: S.

All these themes are embodied by only two characters, Clay and Lula, who therefore have racial, social and sexual roles in one plot Bigsby: which leaves his work open to ambiguity Bigsby: The following parts will now try to examine each of these issues in detail. The representation of the situation of the blacks in the s The first intention which Dutchman expresses is being an evidence of the period.

It describes the unambiguous reality of the situation of the American blacks in the s and gives an impression of the American history and politics of that time.

Racism as the previous condition was a living death Berkowitz: , so black people were faced with two alternatives, assimilation or revolt They had to find new identities Berkowitz: Dutchman presents Clay who has chosen the first one and who therefore denies his origin.

Racial Identity and Assimilation: Dutchman and the Conflict of Stratified Identities

He takes the white world as a model which is expressed by his appearance, language his mastery of language gives him access to the white world Bigsby: and behaviour like numerous other young black people did it. One of those hopeless colored names creeping out of New Jersey. These examples show how blacks adapt themselves to the white society and how they deliver their own individuality.

Consequently, they lost their orientation and found neither their old ways nor the imitation of white behaviour fully satisfactory The text of Dutchman can be seen as a representation of the black situation. Several evidences represent Lula as the white class dominating the black one.

She forces him to assimilation which is expressed by giving him the symbolic sinful apple with which he accepts her discriminating attitudes and denies himself. In a wider sense, Lula as the white woman dictates Clay white values and norms which he believes to have to assume.

In scene two, when Lula describes a fictive evening together with Clay at and after a party, Clay again asks questions about how the evening might go on.

In his submissiveness he renounces to use his own power against the white group because that would be his own disaster. Here we see the contrast between white liberalism and the vulnerability of black integration Dutchman is a mirror which shows the black reaction to white racism: assimilation.

By means of Clay as a black stereotype, he play shows the inner feelings, especially anger, of an entire black group oppressed by the white one which is in search for their identification.Walked down the aisle.

I just figured you would know somebody like that. Hay and B. The characters engage in a long, flirtatious conversation throughout the train ride. In a wider sense, Lula as the white woman dictates Clay white values and norms which he believes to have to assume.

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