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Railroad Track Engineering and Design Course - Michigan Tech University. This “Handbook for Rail Higher Education” is one of the important outcomes of. The text hereafter is not intended to supplant the AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering, the AREMA C&S Manual or other comprehensive texts covering. The purpose of the Rail Office Programs Handbook (Rail Handbook) is to . engineering personnel from the City or County with jurisdictional authority over.
Local rapid transit systems are usually operated as public utilities by the individual municipalities or transit authorities on their own trackage. Commuter services may be operated by government agencies or private sector on either their own or other railway owned trackage.
For example, a hp locomotive will have approximately 74, lbs. The maximum tractive force that can be developed at the rail is equal to the weight on drivers multiplied by the adhesion coefficient of friction of the wheels on the rail. The primary factors, among others, affecting adhesion are rail condition and speed. Adhesion decreases as speed increases. As all the wheels on most diesel locomotives are driving wheels, the weight of the locomotives must be about four times the tractive force developed.
The HHP high horsepower units for main line service weigh about tons each on 6 axles. The maximum tractive force is therefore approximately 97, lb. As the train speed increases, the tractive effort from the locomotives decreases and the drawbar pull available to move the train also decreases. Due to the limited strength of drawbars and coupler knuckles, the number of locomotives or motorized axles that can be used in the head end of a train is restricted.
Although rated with a minimum strength of , lb. Grade E knuckles used on some captive services may have an ultimate strength of , lb.
To avoid the risk of drawbar failure enroute, it is recommended to limit the number of motorized axles in a locomotive consist to 18 three 6-axle units. Other resistances due to wind velocity, tunnels or different train marshalling will not be discussed here. Rolling Resistance Rolling Resistance is the sum of the forces that must be overcome by the tractive effort of the locomotive to move a railway vehicle on level tangent track in still air at a constant speed.
These resistive forces include: Rolling friction between wheels and rail that depends mainly on the quality of track. Bearing resistance, which varies with the weight on each axle and, at low speed, the type, design and lubrication of the bearing. The American Public Transportation Association APTA defines light rail transit as An electric railway system characterized by its ability to operate single or multiple car consists along exclusive rights-of-way at ground level, on aerial structures, in subways or in streets, able to board and discharge passengers at station platforms or at street, track, or car-floor level and normally powered by overhead electrical wires.
The track system may also be constructed within exclusive rights-of- way. General Introduction 1. The streetcar lines in New Orleans are representative of the lower end of this spectrum while the Metrolink system in St. Louis is a good example of the upper end. The focus of the first edition of this Handbook was more toward the stadtbahn end of the LRT continuum, since they were the prototype for nearly all North American LRT projects during the s and s.
However, because of the resurgence of North American streetcar operations during the first decade of the 21st century, it is appropriate for this second edition of the Handbook to provide additional information on the track alignment and trackwork for strassenbahn-type operations. These differences usually mean that LRT can be constructed at far lower cost than metro rail transit, although the passenger throughput capacity of the latter is also much higher.
This draws a line between the St. The operational characteristics of each route are virtually the same, but only the St. Louis vehicle could actually operate in the street if necessary.
It is a very fine distinction, and, while purists may quibble with some of the finer points of this definition, it will suffice for the purposes of this Handbook.
Except for the propulsion system, many of these vehicles and the guideways they run upon closely resemble the Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition stadtbahn end of the LRT spectrum. The second edition of the Handbook will not attempt to cover all of the nuances of the DMU mode; however much of the information contained in the Handbook will be directly applicable to professionals working on a DMU project.
This includes freight railroads and passenger railroads such as Amtrak and the commuter rail operations in many cities. Track in streets requires special consideration, especially with regard to the control of stray electrical current that could cause corrosion. These embedded tracks also need to provide a flangeway that is large enough for the wheels but does not pose a hazard to other users of the street. Light rail vehicle wheels do not necessarily match those used in freight railroad service.
Wheel diameters are usually much smaller, and the wheel tread is often much narrower. Light rail wheel flanges are often shorter and have a radically different contour than railroad wheels.
These variations require special care in track design, especially in the design of special trackwork such as switches and frogs. The compatibility of the vehicle and track designs is a central issue in the development of a light rail system if both components are to perform to acceptable standards.
These issues are discussed at length in this Handbook. This will make operation more reliable and maintenance less expensive. Department of Transportation. However, very few rail transit operations are subject to any level of FRA oversight and regulation. In fact, as of , the U. Therefore, Handbook users must familiarize themselves with any applicable regulations in the state where the light rail transit line will be constructed and operate. Chapter 2 elaborates on vehicle design and critical issues pertaining to track and vehicle interface.
Chapter 3 details issues related to light rail track geometry with particular attention to restrictions imposed by alignment characteristics, such as tight radius curvature, severe vertical curves, and steep profile grade lines. Chapter 4 elaborates on the three basic types of track structures: ballasted, direct fixation, and embedded track.
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The chapter takes the designer through a series of selections pertaining to the track design. The chapter discusses track and wheel gauges, flangeways, rail types, guarded track restraining rail , and track modulus and provides references to discussions on stray current, noise and vibration, and signal system and traction power requirements in other chapters.
Chapter 5 discusses various trackwork components and details.
Chapter 6 provides guidelines for the design and selection of various types and sizes of special trackwork. Included are details pertaining to switches, frogs, guard rails, crossings diamonds , and associated items. Chapter 7 recognizes that virtually all light rail transit systems require bridges or similar structures.
Aerial structures are not uncommon. Chapter 7 provides a framework for determining the magnitude of forces generated due to differential thermal expansion between the rail especially stationary continuous welded rail and the structure. The analysis elaborates on structural restrictions, fastener elastomer displacement, fastening toe loads, friction and longitudinal restraint, and probable conditions at a rail break on the structure.
The analysis includes the conditional forces generated by locating special trackwork on an aerial structure and methods of contending with them.
The chapter also addresses the design issues of track slabs constructed on grade, particularly embedded track, since the design principles are distinctly different than ordinary roadway pavement. Chapter 8 stems from the fact that light rail transit uses the running rail as a negative return in the traction power system and highlights the issues pertaining to stray current and discusses the need to electrically insulate the rail and thereby retard the potential for electrical leakage.
Methodologies for establishing magnitude, identifying sources, and developing corrective measures are part of this chapter.
Engineering & Construction
It also discusses mitigation procedures and treatments for tangent, curved, and special trackwork. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition Chapter 10 highlights issues related to signals and related train control systems for light rail transit and discusses some of the interfacing issues and components that must be considered by a track designer. Chapter 11 presents elements pertinent to traction power, including supply system and substations, the catenary distribution system, and the power return through the running rails.
The chapter also discusses corrosion control measures to mitigate the effects of DC current to adjacent services. Chapter 12 discusses issues related to the application of LRT into a street environment, particularly mixed traffic streetcar-style configurations.
Chapter 13 describes considerations the track designer should understand about how the project will actually be built. Chapter 14 describes the activities that will be necessary to maintain the track system in a state of good repair so that it can continue to meet the operational goals of the project.
Emphasis is given to avoidance of details that either have high maintenance requirements or are difficult or impossible to routinely inspect and maintain. An overall table of contents lists only the 14 chapter topics. Each chapter contains its own detailed table of contents; list of figures and tables; and, in some cases, a reference list. Pages are numbered by chapter for example, is page 24 in Chapter 4.Included are articles describing the development of maintenance-of- way practices in the past 40 years from the perspective of a retired Class 1 chief engineer, geometry solutions for turnout and connection track location, spiral and full body curve example problem solutions, Bartlett Method of calculating throws for stringlining curves and a synopsis of one Class 1 railways step by step procedures for performing common maintenance and capital improvement activities.
If every train operated in the same direction, at precisely the same speed and assuming a relatively sophisticated method of controlling train movements, line capacity over a single track would be very high.
It is upon that foundation that this Second Edition is built.
As noted previously, transit properties make use of unique turnout designs, extensive check rail installations and other track features, which require maintenance. DC substations are smaller, ranging in size from to square feet, but are generally more numerous than AC substations.
However, as the structure becomes taller, the economies of pile bents are diminished due to the need to strengthen the relatively slender components. For example, a hp locomotive will have approximately 74, lbs. Air resistance that varies directly with the cross-sectional area, length and shape of the vehicle and the square of its speed.
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