A Textbook of Manufacturing Technology: Manufacturing Processes. By R. K. Rajput. About this book · Shop for Books on Google Play. Browse the world's. The authors of the book ''Manufacturing Processes'' are thrilled at the speed with It has been felt that to make the text of the book even more useful, certain. Uploaded by. vismayluhadiya. Manufacturing-Technology by P N Uploaded by. ewr. A Textbook of Production Engineering_P. C. Sharma. Uploaded by.

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The book begins with a discussion of the basic principles of costing. The text covers the unit Manufacturing Technology IV (BTECU83/) of the Business and. most of the syllabus of manufacturing processes/technology, workshop The author strongly believes that the book would serve not only as a text book for the. With these changes and additions, it is hoped that the book finds the Available from site in site edition and Google Books Manufacturing-Technology-Foundry- Download full-text PDF.

It can also be used as a general reference text for other courses involving manufacturing processes. He has written many engineering textbooks, including Mechatronics, 4th ed.

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Institutional Subscription. The remainder of this paper provides an overview on the seven different approaches to AM, followed by a discussion of the business trends and opportunities afforded by AM techniques.

At the time of the writing of this paper this categorization is being balloted, and thus the final names of these categories are subject to change as the standards-development consensus process proceeds. Material Jetting Material jetting is the use of inkjet printers or other similar techniques to deposit droplets of build material that are selectively dispensed through a nozzle or orifice to build up a three-dimensional structure.

Manufacturing Technology by P N Rao

In most cases these droplets are made up of photopolymers or wax-like materials to form parts or investment casting patterns, respectively.

Photopolymers are useful materials for material jetting because they transform from a liquid to a solid in the presence of light. Photopolymers can be tuned to cross-link and harden in response to different wavelengths of light, and for AM they typically transform in the visible or ultraviolet wavelength ranges.

Material-jetting techniques often use multiple arrays of printheads to print different materials. For 3D geometry that includes channels, voids, or overhanging structures, a support must be built below any overhanging surfaces as droplets have to land on something to keep them in a fixed location; see Figure 2. When a secondary support material is used, a water-soluble material is commonly used so that the supports can be removed by immersing the part in a water-based liquid.

Material jetting is capable of printing multimaterial and gradient-material structures. Applications of multimaterial parts range from parts with controlled hardness and flexibility to parts with differing electrical properties in various regions to tissue-engineered structures with different biological properties in different regions of the part.

A binder-jetting process starts by first depositing a thin layer of powder. A printhead is then used to print a glue pattern onto the powder, thus forming the first layer. A new layer of powder is deposited and glue is printed again.

This pattern is repeated until the part is completed.

Note the supports. Two benefits of binder jetting are its speed and its lack of need for secondary support materials. Since the majority of the volume of the part is made up of the powder material, only a small fraction of the volume of the part needs to be deposited from the printheads.

As a result, a layer can be formed very quickly using arrays of printheads —often in a matter of seconds. The powder that surrounds the part being formed will naturally act as a support for any subsequent overhanging geometries, and no secondary support materials are necessary. The only commercially available full-color 3D printing machines are binderjetting machines.


A binder-jetting machine can be set up in such a way that a complete color spectrum can be printed layer-by-layer. This enables assembled parts to be produced in the intended colors for marketing purposes and for graphics, labels, and other visual features to be directly printed onto a part as it is being produced Figure 3.


Photopolymer Vat Photopolymer vat processes involve selective curing of predeposited photopolymers using some type of light source. Stereolithography, the first patented and commercialized AM process, works by scanning a laser across the surface of a vat of photopolymer. A platform is raised to just one layer thickness below the surface of the liquid. The laser scans the first cross-sectional layer, attaching the layer to the platform.

Glue is printed inside the blue contours of the part layer. Photopolymer vat techniques give some of the best accuracies and surface finishes of any AM process. Some photopolymer vat technologies have been developed to use digital light processing projectors to project an image of the layer on the surface of the vat, thus cross-linking the photopolymer and converting the entire layer from a liquid to a solid simultaneously.

Photopolymer vat technologies require a support network to be built for overhanging structures, otherwise these structures are subject to breaking or deforming. These supports are made from the same material that the part is made from, so these supports must be cut away after the part is completed. Material Extrusion The largest installed base of AM techniques is based upon material extrusion.

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Material-extrusion machines work by forcing material through a nozzle in a controlled manner to build up a structure. The build material is usually a polymer filament that is extruded through a heated nozzle—an automated version of the hot-glue gun used for arts and crafts. After a layer of material is deposited by the nozzle onto a platform, the platform either moves down or the nozzle moves up, and then a new layer of material is deposited.

Three or more nozzles are sometimes used in machines designed for tissue-engineering research, so that scaffolds and other biologically compatible materials can be deposited in specific regions of the implant.

The simplicity of material-extrusion machines makes them suitable for in-office and home environments. This proliferation of low-cost AM machines is a major reason for the current mainstream interest in 3D printing. Powder Bed Fusion Powder-bed-fusion machines work in a manner similar to binder jetting; however, instead of printing glue onto a layer of powder, thermal energy is used to melt the powder into the desired pattern.

In most machines a laser is used to melt polymer or metal powders to build up three-dimensional objects. Another common variant is the use of an electron beam to melt metal powders.

In the case of polymer powders, the powder surrounding the part being built makes possible the creation of complex three-dimensional objects without supports. However, for metal powders, the thermal shrinkage of metal parts during solidification causes the parts to warp; supports are used to attach the part to a thick metal baseplate to maintain the accuracy of the parts and restrain them from warping. These metal supports are machined off after the part is completed.

Powder-bed-fusion machines are the most commonly used AM machines for the creation of end-use parts for highly engineered products. Polymer and metal parts made using these techniques are becoming widely used in aerospace, defense, and other highly engineered systems.

Directed Energy Deposition Directed-energy-deposition machines melt material with a laser or other energy source as material is being deposited. These machines work similarly to material-extrusion machines except that, instead of melting the material with a nozzle, the wire or powder feed material is melted as it is being deposited onto a part Figure 4.

In order to make parts with overhangs, directed-energy-deposition systems need to use either a five-axis deposition system so that material can be deposited from any orientation or a secondary support material. Because these systems are typically used to make metal parts or metal-ceramic composite structures, any supports that are used require machining to remove them.

In most cases these processes are used to build up metal structures, and thus they are commonly referred to as metal-deposition AM machines.A platform is raised to just one layer thickness below the surface of the liquid. E and competitive examinations. Applied Stress Analysis. Applications of multimaterial parts range from parts with controlled hardness and flexibility to parts with differing electrical properties in various regions to tissue-engineered structures with different biological properties in different regions of the part.

Tungsten carbide has been extensively used as tool insert for machining processes involving chip removal processes. These resources and listings were reviewed at the time of publication to provide you with accurate, safe, and appropriate information.

The only commercially available full-color 3D printing machines are binderjetting machines.

Material-jetting techniques often use multiple arrays of printheads to print different materials. Many believe additive manufacturing is revolutionary and has the potential to transform manufacturing in the same way that Web 2.

Moreover, the mechanism for the generation of features would also be reviewed.

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